Sunday, 16 February 2020

February 16, 2020

Micro-needles for painless drug delivery

Micro-needles are used to deliver the drug through transdermally. They vary in size 20-1500 micron in length and diameter not more than 30 micron.
These serve the purpose of both conventional hypodermic needles and transdermal patches.

Types of micro-needles
  • Solid
  • Coated
  • Dissolving
  • Hollow

How micro-needles deliver drugs

    Poke and patch: in this method micro-needles are inserted into the skin and the drug remains on the skin in the form of patch.

     Poke and coat : drug is coated on micro-needles and inserted into skin.

     Biodegradable (poke and release) : biodegradable  micro-needles are released into skin.

     Hollow (poke and flow): drug is injected through hollow needles.

  You can follow this link to check how drugs are delivered through micro-     needles.

  Self administration is possible
  No Microbial growth
  Less costly

v Proper care needed
v Chances of breakage of needles
v Inflammation on site of application
v Skin irritation

Although micro-needles for cosmetic products are available in the market, a lot of research is going on for micro-needles as a future drug delivery system instead of hypodermic needles which is painful and these will also provide sustained release of the drug. 


February 16, 2020


Organ donation is medical surgery to remove the organ from the body and Organ transplantation is a surgical treatment   in which removal of organ from donor and placed in the body of a recipient, or to replace with the functioning one.  Organs that can be transplanted basically are lungs, kidney, heart, liver, and thymus. 

Most commonly transplanted organ is kidneys. Sir Peter Medawar was the father of transplantation. If Organs  transplant within the same person's body is said to be auto grafts. If organ Transplants between two subjects of the same species are called allograft.

In which age you can become a donor
Basically any one can become a donor depends on his/her will, but if He/she is younger than age 18 required a consent of a parent. You may also donate organ after death but if the donor  suffering from any  chronic disease like HIV, Cancer, tumor, diabetes, kidney disease or any kind of heart disease  excluded from this organ donation procedure because it become risky for the patient life.

Purpose of donating organs
The most important purpose is to save the life of an individual and it is the biggest gift for him/her to live their life again. Donating organs to which those really need can increase the quality of their life and able to spend time with family and friends. The requirement of the organs is very high but there is very less people who take interest in this kind of work. 

In United States, every day 20-21people dies only because of waiting for the organs. One organ and tissue donor can help transform the lives of more than 10 people. This depends upon donors and their families willing to donate their organ and tissue after death. Australia has one of the best transplant success rates in the world and research shows that the majority of Australians support organ and tissue donation.

  • Eye transplant help someone to see the world again.
  • Heart valves transplant help to recover babies born with heart defects.
  • Kidney transplant increase the life span of the recipient up to 10 years.
  • Transpalantation of any organ can improve the quality of living life and   recipient health.
  • He/she spends more quality time with family and friends. 
  • Bone marrow transplants  save the children suffering from blood disorders.

  1. Rejection of organ
  2. Collapsing of organ
  3. Organ failure
  4. Illness  and infections due to drugs and anti-rejection
  5. Anaesthesia may cause some risk  like death
  6. Unexpected infection after surgery.
  7. Dialysis may cause various side effects like muscle cramping etc.

Donating the organ to someone is a very good job. By this we can save someone’s life by living and dying we can do these noble things in any way. Transplantation is a successive medical therapeutic option for treatment of end stage disease. 

Success depends on improved surgical techniques, immunosuppressant and organ preservation and follow up.


February 16, 2020

Liquid medication dosing errors in Children

What is medication dosing error?
Administering medication to the children is a very challenging task in today’s life. Administration of medications to young children can be complex for parents. Oral liquid formulations are typically prescribed to young children, and many parents find that accurate measurement is  not so easy. Parents frequently misunderstand  the instructions regarding how to give or administer medication to their children properly.
According to the results of a study carried out in urban areas regarding administration of dosage to children, more than 40% of parents or those administering medicine to their child are making errors in dosing liquid medications and some are even missing the dose. Most of the parents are using dosing cup for dose measurement and others are using oral syringes Those with low health literacy, as well as those with limited health literacy, are at risk for medication administration errors.
Acc. to FDA  parents should know which medications are appropriate to give infants and children and how to give them.
Follow the link to know what you need to know while giving medicine to your child & the adverse effect that can occur due to dosing error: (

What About Side Effects?

It is important that parents/caregivers are aware that despite being widely available without a prescription, side effects with overdose of  paracetamol can also occur. After giving your child a dose of medicine, check for any side effects or allergic reactions. The packaging of the product or pharmacist or doctor may warn you about specific side effects of a medicine, such as drowsiness or hyperactivity.

If your child has side effects such as rashes, vomiting, or diarrhea, contact your doctor or pharmacist. Penicillin and other antibiotics are among the most common prescription drugs to cause an allergic reaction.
If your child develops wheezing, has trouble breathing, or difficulty swallowing after taking a medicine, seek emergency help by calling 911 or going to the emergency department immediately. These could be symptoms of a serious allergic reaction that requires emergency care.

How the problem can be resolved?
Potential strategies to reduce such types of errors include the use of a health literacy-informed approach for improving provider communication of medication instructions to parents through
a) the use of advanced counseling techniques, and
b) to provide standardized dosing instruments with the medication.

Some other important tips to avoid medication errors:-

Always use the dosing instrument that comes with the medication.
1. Do not leave medicines out after using them. Immediately return medicines to your safe storage location after each use.
2. Carefully read the label and look at any pictures on the medicine bottle always and make sure you are following the recommended use and measuring the dose correctly as prescribed by the physician.

3.  Liquid medications are generally based on a child’s weight instead of age.  So Knowing your child’s weight errors of overdoses can be reduced.
4. Properly Communicate with all the caregivers at the home, to avoid giving multiple doses.

5. Your children should know about medication safety i.e your children should know that medication should be handled only by an adult.
6. Keep the medicine bottles and dosing instruments together in their original packaging.  
Follow these links to know more about medication safety and how to safely store medicines :
FDA(Food and Drug Administration) recommends using the proper dosing device that comes with the medication, not a regular kitchen spoon. Moreover If a child is taking more than one medication at the same time, parents should avoid giving two medications with the same active ingredient. Parents should always ask questions about proper dosing, as well.

The ability to understand the importance and correct use of standardized dosing instruments i.e dosing cups, oral syringes, dropper etc as well as the ability to interpret the measurement units eg. milliliter, teaspoon, tablespoon are among the key factors that help parents avoid dosing errors.

Tuesday, 11 February 2020

February 11, 2020


CORONAVIRUS causes infection in nose, sinuses, or upper throat. It was first identified in the 1960s. It was named so due to its crown-like shape. It can infect both animals and humans. Most corona viruses are not dangerous but some of its types are serious, though.

The symptoms of most corona viruses are same as of Upper respiratory infection like runny nose, coughing, sore throat, and sometimes fever. In most cases, it’s difficult to identify between corona virus or a different cold-causing virus, such as rhinovirus. It can also cause middle ear infections in children.

In older people, people having heart disease or with weakened immune systems it can cause pneumonia, if it spreads to the lower respiratory tract i.e. to air pipe and lungs.
Most Corona virus spreads the same way like other cold-causing viruses that is by touching or using the things of infected person or by coughing and sneezing.

Various lab tests, including nose and throat cultures and blood tests can be done to find out whether it’s a normal cold infection or Corona virus infection.

Till date there is no vaccine for Corona virus. To help prevent Corona virus infection precautionary measures can only be taken like:
1. Properly washing hands with soap and warm water or with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
2. Avoid contact of dirty hands with eyes, nose and mouth.
3. Avoid close contact with infected people.
4. Take rest
5. Stay hydrated
6. Over-the-counter medicine can be taken to relieve sore throat and fever
7. To ease sore throat humidifier or steamy shower can be taken.

In 2012 in Saudi Arabia, around 858 people died from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) after that in other countries of the Middle East like Africa, Asia, and Europe.
In April 2014 in Indiana the first American was infected by MERS and another case was reported in Florida. They both have returned from Saudi Arabia.
In May 2015 in Korea MERS was reported and it was the largest outbreak outside the Arabian Peninsula.

In early 2020 in China was infected hugely reports of infection came but it was of an new novel type Corona virus identified by World Health Organization (2019-nCoV).
You tube Link:


February 11, 2020

Time Management

Nature has fixed up time slots for everything in the universe. Sunrise, Sunset, hours in day, days in a week & all other events that exists have fixed schedule. So who ever is achieving his/her goal/success in life, have not been given extra time by the nature. So here exists the need of time management in our life.

Time management is to manage time in effective manner and the task of time management is accomplished via allocating the right time to the right activity. It is an effective tool to balance work & life along with achieving one’s goals at the same time.

In nut shell, Time Management helps us:

  • ·       Saving our time
  • ·       Reducing the work stress
  • ·       Functioning  in an effective manner
  • ·       To produce better work output
  • ·       To establish command over our job responsibilities
  • ·       To achieve our goals within the desired time frame

Few tips to utilize time effectively:

  • ·       First thing is to prepare an effective plan to achieve your goals. 
  • ·       Second is to wisely prepare a Roadmaps with deadlines
  • ·      Important versus Urgent: We must have a clear understanding that what is important in our life & what is not. We must do important things ourselves on priority. Many a time, we might have observed that we spend unproductive time doing some urgent jobs which are not in relevance with our life goals but are the need of the hour. These jobs make us unproductive and are eats most our working time. We must out source these jobs or Delegate these responsibilities to others so that we primarily may focus on important things in life.
  • ·       We must take on realistic goals & should not over-commit to self.

Few tips to save time:  

  • ·       Turn off the mobile notifications
  • ·       Check mails/social media only twice/once a day
  • ·       Outsource unnecessary jobs
  • ·       Be organized & do smart document handling
  • ·       For doing important work, find a space so the potential interrupters can’t find you

Build a Quality time in your daily schedule:
“Quality Time” stands for a time slot during which you are fresh & energetic to do the most important task of the day. Time slots that enables you to move away from reactive work to proactive work. In my opinion, this quality time starts early in morning around 4 a.m. As per Hindu, Sikh & Muslim religion, this time is termed as Braham Muhurata, Amritvela & fazar respecrtively. It is believed that this time slot allows you deep concentration without any interruptions.

Tips to prepare a “To Do List” or “Daily work plan”

  • ·    Start the day with it & plan the same in accordance to your Short Term & Long Term Goals
  • ·     Sort all the planned jobs as per its priority
  • ·    On one side of your planner, keep account of the time log i.e time spent on each activity right from the start to the end of the day.
  • ·     Review the day’s Outcome / Judge Your Performance at the day’s end.


Mr. Deepak Juneja

February 11, 2020

Why Wuhan, China become an Epiceter of novel Coronavirus Outbreak?

Corona is a Latin word which means “Halo” or Crown. The coronavirus is having crown like projections. Scientist discovered that coronaviruses basically infect mammals like mice, rats, dogs, cats, horses, pigs, cattle, snakes and also humans. It was first discovered in from lungs of birds in 1937. Human coronaviruses (HCoV) were first discovered in 1960s from nose of a patient suffering from common cold. 

Currently the deadly novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is suspected to spread from bats or snakes to humans. The coronaviruses affect the respiratory tract and are responsible for 15-30 percent of common cold.
The person suffering from coronavirus infections may have cold or flu like symptoms i.e. running nose, sneezing, cough, fever. The complications of infection may lead to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) similar to pneumonia.

Wuhan city is a capital of Hubei Province of People’s Republic of China. It is ninth most populous city of china having populations about 11 millions. In 1927, Wuhan was capital of China and was wartime Capital of China in 1937. The city is political, cultural, economical, financial, commercial and educational hub of central China. The city is referred as Chicago of China and also declared as Creative City of World by UNISCO in 2017. The city is having nearly 350 research institutes and 1656 enterprises and produced GDP of US 224billion dollars in 2018.

The Huanan Seafood market is the largest live animal and seafood wholesale market in Wuhan and Central China. The market is spread over 50,000 m2 area and is near shops & residential area. Beside seafood, nearly 120 wildlife animal species were selling in the market. As reported in media, the market is having unsanitary conditions i.e. narrow lanes, live stokes kept in open with dead animals, wet floors, poor ventilation.

On 31 December, 2019; World Health Organisation (WHO) notified about outbreak of Pneumonia in Wuhan. Out of 41 cases reported initially, 28 patients told that they have recently visited the seafood market. Later on 2th January, 2020; noval Corona Virus (2019-nCoV) infection was confirmed. Animals specimens taken from market, which latter on also confirmed as infected with 2019-nCoV.

As per estimate, nearly five million people left the Wuhan city before the city lockdown. As per media reports, there is anger in masses and are criticizing the government’s late action. The viral infection is spreading in other parts of China and also in other countries including Australia, Europe, North America, France, Several countries of Asia including India. So far, there are more than 550 deaths due to Coronavirus infection in China. Coronavirus infection is declared as global emergency by WHO.

Fig: Structure of Coronavirus

No need to panic, just avoid contact with patient, wash your hands properly, drink lots of fluid and have vegetarian food. Treatment of patient is symptomatic and hopes to defeat this deadly strain (2019-nCoV) of coronavirus again.


Prof. (Dr.) Sunil Jawla